Hope's pyramid in Giza - detailed information with photos


The beginning of the construction of the pyramid is approximately 2560 before our era. The architect was Heemion, the nephew of Pharaoh Heops, who ruled by all the construction sites of the ancient kingdom at that time. For the construction of the pyramid of Heops, not less than 20 years old, at the same time, according to different estimates, more than one hundred thousand people were involved. The project demanded titanic efforts: workers mined blocks for construction in another place, in the rocks, delivered them along the river and raised the tilt plane to the top of the pyramid on wooden sled. More than 2.5 million granite and limestone blocks needed more than 2.5 million granite and limestone blocks, and at the very top, a gold-plated stone was installed, which attached the color of the sun's sun rays. But in the 2nd century, when Arabs destroyed Cairo, local residents disassembled all the facing of the pyramid to build their homes.

Video: Hope's mystery mysteries

Hope's Pyramid Construction History

The beginning of the construction of the pyramid is approximately 2560 before our era. The architect was Heemion, the nephew of Pharaoh Heops, who ruled by all the construction sites of the ancient kingdom at that time. For the construction of the pyramid of Heops, not less than 20 years old, at the same time, according to different estimates, more than one hundred thousand people were involved. The project demanded titanic efforts: workers mined blocks for construction in another place, in the rocks, delivered them along the river and raised the tilt plane to the top of the pyramid on wooden sled. More than 2.5 million granite and limestone blocks needed more than 2.5 million granite and limestone blocks, and at the very top, a gold-plated stone was installed, which attached the color of the sun's sun rays. But in the 2nd century, when Arabs destroyed Cairo, local residents disassembled all the facing of the pyramid to build their homes.

For almost three millennia, Heops pyramid occupied the first place on the ground in height, giving the palm of the championship only in 1300 to the Cathedral of the Lincoln Cathedral. Now the height of the pyramid is 138 m, it decreased compared to the initial 8 m, and the base area is more than 5 hectares.

Hope's Pyramid is worshiped by local residents as a shrine, and annually on August 23, the Egyptians celebrate the day of its construction. Why Augustus chose, no one knows, because there are no historical facts confirming it.

Heops pyramid device

Inside the hoeing pyramid, the three burial chambers are of the greatest interest, which are one above the other in the strict vertical. The lowest left unfinished, the second belongs to the wife of Pharaoh, and the third is heeops himself.

To travel by corridors, tracks with steps were laid for the convenience of tourists, railing was made and covered.

Heopse pyramid transverse section

1. Main input

2. The entrance that Al-Mamun has done

3. Crossroads, "Cork" and Al-Mamuna Tunnel Made "Bypass"

4. Downward corridor

5. Unfinished underground chamber

6. Ascending corridor

7. "Tsaritsa Camera" with outgoing "air ducts"

8. Horizontal tunnel

If you wish, you can and be inside the pyramid of Heops, but it is worth considering that the passage is quite narrow and low, most of the path has to be held in a semi-bent condition. In addition, it can be quite stuffy here. People suffering from claustrophobia, it is better to refrain from visiting. The complex also contains a museum in which you can see the finds found during the excavations. The pyramids can come both independently and as part of an organized excursion group.If you wish, you can and be inside the pyramid of Heops, but it is worth considering that the passage is quite narrow and low, most of the path has to be held in a semi-bent condition. In addition, it can be quite stuffy here. People suffering from claustrophobia, it is better to refrain from visiting. The complex also contains a museum in which you can see the finds found during the excavations. The pyramids can come both independently and as part of an organized excursion group.If you wish, you can and be inside the pyramid of Heops, but it is worth considering that the passage is quite narrow and low, most of the path has to be held in a semi-bent condition. In addition, it can be quite stuffy here. People suffering from claustrophobia, it is better to refrain from visiting. The complex also contains a museum in which you can see the finds found during the excavations. The pyramids can come both independently and as part of an organized excursion group.9. Big Gallery

10. Chamber of Pharaoh with "air ducts"

11. Precamer

12. Grotto

Entrance to the pyramidEntrance to the pyramidEntrance to the pyramidEntrance to the pyramid

The entrance to the pyramid of Heops is an arc formed from stone slabs, and is located on the north side, at an altitude of 15 m 63 cm. Previously, it was laid by a granite cork, but it was not preserved to this day. In 820, Khalif Abdullah al-Mamoun decided to find treasure in the pyramid and did a seventeenthimeter break below the historical entrance by 10 meters. The Baghdad ruler did not find anything, but in our days, tourists enter the pyramid through this tunnel.

When al-Mamoon pierced his passage, the limestone's lumping closed the entrance to another corridor - ascending, and three granite tubes remained behind the limestone. Since on the point of connecting two corridors, downward and ascending, a vertical tunnel was discovered, it was put forward to the assumption that the plugs from the granite were downwards, so as to seal the tomb after the funeral of the Egyptian king.

Burial "Yama"Burial "Yama"

A downward corridor, the length of which is 105 meters, descends under the ground under the tilt of 26 ° 26'46 and rests on another corridor with a length of 8.9 m, leading to chamber 5 and located horizontally. Here is an unfinished chamber of 14 × 8.1 m in size, in shape stretched from the east to the west. For a long time it was believed that there are no other premises in the pyramid, except for this corridor and the camera, but it turned out otherwise. The height of the chamber reaches 3.5 m. The southern wall of the chamber has a well depth of about 3 m, from which narrow LAZ (0.7 × 0.7 m in section) is stretched in the southern direction at 16 m (0.7 × 0.7 m in cross section).

John Perring Engineers and Howard Wize (Richard William Howard VYSE) At the beginning of the XIX century, the floor was dismantled in the chamber and pulled a well depth 11.6 m, in which they hoped to detect a hidden burial room. They were based on the testimony of Herodotus, who claimed that the body of Heops is located on the island surrounded by a channel in a hidden underground chamber. Their excavations did not lead to anything. Late studies have shown that the camera was broken in progress, and the funeral cameras were decided to arrange in the center of the pyramid itself.

Interior of the funeral pit, photo 1910Interior of the funeral pit, photo 1910Interior of the funeral pit, photo 1910Interior of the funeral pit, photo 1910

Ascending Corridor and Chamber of the Queen

From the first third of the descending passage (after 18 m from the main entrance) Up under the same angle of 26.5 ° goes to the south of the rising pass (6) with a length of about 40 m, ending at the bottom of a large gallery (9).

At its beginning, the ascending pass contains 3 large cubic granite "traffic jams", which are outside, from a downward passage, were disguised as a limestone unit that fell during the works of al-Mamuna. It turned out that almost 3 thousand years of scientists were confident that in a large pyramid there are no other premises, except for the downstream passage and an underground chamber. Al-Mamuan could not break through these traffic jams, and he simply won in a softer limestone bypassing to the right of them.At its beginning, the ascending pass contains 3 large cubic granite "traffic jams", which are outside, from a downward passage, were disguised as a limestone unit that fell during the works of al-Mamuna. It turned out that almost 3 thousand years of scientists were confident that in a large pyramid there are no other premises, except for the downstream passage and an underground chamber. Al-Mamuan could not break through these traffic jams, and he simply won in a softer limestone bypassing to the right of them.At its beginning, the ascending pass contains 3 large cubic granite "traffic jams", which are outside, from a downward passage, were disguised as a limestone unit that fell during the works of al-Mamuna. It turned out that almost 3 thousand years of scientists were confident that in a large pyramid there are no other premises, except for the downstream passage and an underground chamber. Al-Mamuan could not break through these traffic jams, and he simply won in a softer limestone bypassing to the right of them.At its beginning, the ascending pass contains 3 large cubic granite "traffic jams", which are outside, from a downward passage, were disguised as a limestone unit that fell during the works of al-Mamuna. It turned out that almost 3 thousand years of scientists were confident that in a large pyramid there are no other premises, except for the downstream passage and an underground chamber. Al-Mamuan could not break through these traffic jams, and he simply won in a softer limestone bypassing to the right of them.

Camera Camers and Corridors

In the middle of the upstream passage, the wall design has a feature: in three places the so-called "frame stones" are installed - that is, the square through the entire length is pierced three monoliths. The appointment of these stones is unknown.

Camera Camers and CorridorsCamera Camers and CorridorsCamera Camers and Corridors

In the second burial chamber, a horizontal corridor with a length of 35 m and 1.75 m with a height of 1.75 m is found in the southern direction. It is traditionally referred to as the chamber of the queen, although according to the rigging of Pharaohov, was buried in separate small pyramids. The "Tsaritsa chamber", lined with limestone, has 5.74 meters from east to west and 5.23 meters from north to south; Its maximum height is 6.22 meters. There is a high niche in the eastern wall of the chamber.

Drawing of the Chamber of the Tsaritsa

Grotto, Big Gallery and Chamber of Pharaoh

Another branch from the lower part of the big gallery is a narrow almost vertical mine with a height of about 60 m, leading to the bottom of the downward pass. There is a suggestion that it was intended to evacuate workers or priests, completing the "sealing" of the main passage to the "king chamber". In approximately in the middle, it is small, most likely, the natural expansion is the "grotto" of the wrong shape, in which several people could fit from the strength. The grotto (12) is located on the "junction" of the stone masonry of the pyramid and a small, about 9 meters high, a hill on limestone plateau, lying at the base of a large pyramid. The walls of the grotto are partially fortified by the ancient stone masonry, and since its separate stones are too large, there is a suggestion that the grotto existed on the Giza Plateau as an independent structure is still long before the construction of the pyramids, and the evacuation mines itself was built by the location of the grotto. However, taking into account the fact that Mine was drowned in the already laid masonry, and did not laid out, as he says its wrong round section, the question arises of how builders managed to accurately go to the grotto.

Big gallery

The big gallery continues the upstream. Its height is 8.53 m, it is rectangular in a section, with a bit narrowing up ("false arch") walls, a high inclined tunnel with a length of 46.6 m. In the middle of a large gallery almost along the entire length, it is correct in the section a square deepening width 1 meter and a depth of 60 cm, and on both side speakers there are 27 pairs of deepening unknown destinations. The deepening ends with a "big step" - a high horizontal protrusion, a platform of 1x2 meters, at the end of a large gallery, immediately before Laz in the "hallway" - the pre-unit. The playground has a pair of similar deepening ramps, recesses at the corners at the wall. Through the "entrance hall", LAZ leads a funeral "king's lined in the black granite", where empty granite sarcophagus is located.

Over the King Camera is discovered in the XIX century. Five discharge cavities with a total height of 17 m, between which there are monolithic plates with a thickness of about 2 m, and above - a double overlap. Their purpose is to distribute the weight of the overlying layers of the pyramid (about a million tons) to protect from the pressure of the King Camera. In these voids, graffiti were found left, probably workers.

Chamber of PharaohChamber of PharaohChamber of PharaohChamber of Pharaoh

Ventilation channels

From cameras to the north and south leads the network of ventilation channels. Channels from the Chamber of Queen do not reach the surface of the pyramid by 12 meters, and the channels from the Chamber of Pharaoh come to the surface. No other pyramid of such branches found. Scientists did not come to a unanimous opinion if they were built for ventilation or are related to the ideas of the Egyptians about the afterlife. At the top ends of the channels there are doors, most likely symbolizing the entrance to another world. In addition, the channels point to stars: Sirius, Tuban, Alnika, which makes it possible to assume that the pyramid of Heops had an astronomical purpose.

Surroundings of Heops Pyramid

The eastern face of the pyramid of Heops is 3 small pyramids of his wives and family members. They are located from north to south, according to the size: the base of the base of each construction is 0.5 meters less than the previous one. They are well preserved inside, the time partially destroyed only the external cladding. Nearby you can see the foundation of the clock temple of the huof, inside which the drawings depicting the ritual executed by Pharaoh were found, he wore name to combine both lands.

Pharaoh boats

Hope's pyramid - the central figure of the complex of buildings, the location of which had a ritual value. The procession with the late pharaoh was transferred by the Nile on the West Bank on numerous delicates. In the lower church, to which the rooks were swimming, the first part of the funeral ceremony began. Next, the procession was headed to the upper temple, where the chapel and the altar were located. To the west of the upper temple, the pyramid itself was located.

On each side of the pyramid in the rocks, the rooks were lit on the roots on which Pharaoh should have traveling around the afterlime world.

In 1954, the archaeologist Zaku Nur discovered the first boat, called the solar rook. It was made from the Lebanese cedar, consisted of 1224 parts, while not having traces of fastening and connections. Its dimensions: Length is 43 m and width 5.5 m. The restoration of the rook was spent 16 years.

On the south side of the pyramid of Heops, the museum of this boat is open.

Museum of boat

The second boat was found in a mine located east of the place of finding the first rook. A camera was lowered to the mine, which showed traces of insects on a boat, so it was decided not to raise it and seal the mine. Such a decision was accepted by a scientist Eshimuro from Vasneda University.

In total, seven holes were discovered with real ancient Egyptian boats disassembled into parts.

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How to get

If you want to see the great pyramid of Heops, you need to arrive in Cairo. But there are practically no direct flights from Russia and will have to make a transplant in Europe. Without transplant, you can fly to Sharm el-Sheikh, and from there to overcome 500 kilometers to Cairo. You can reach the destination on a comfortable bus, the time on the way is approximately 6 hours, and you can continue the path by plane, they fly to Cairo every half hour. In Egypt, it is very loyal to Russian tourists, a visa can be obtained directly at the airport after landing. It will cost $ 25 and is issued for a month.

Where to stay

If your goal is the treasures of antiquity and you came to the pyramids, then choose the hotel you can both in Giza and in the center of Cairo. Comfortable hotels with all the benefits of civilization are represented in the amount of almost two hundred. In addition, Cairo has many attractions, it is a city of contrasts: modern skyscrapers and ancient minarets, noisy motley bazaars and nightclubs, neon nights and quiet palm gardens.

Memo to tourists

Do not forget that Egypt is a Muslim state. Men should simply not notice Egyptians, because even an innocent touch can be regarded as a harassment. Women must follow the rules in clothing. Modesty and modestly modesty, minimum of bare parts of the body.

For organized excursions to pyramids, tickets can be purchased at any hotel.

The pyramid zone is open to visit in the summer from 8 hours to 17, in winter - it works for half an hour less, the cost of the input ticket is about 8 euros.

Museums are paid separately: to inspect the solar boats for 5 euros.

For entry into the pyramid of Heops, you will take 13 euros, the inspection of the pyramid of Hefren will cost cheaper - 2.6 euros. Here is a very low passage and be prepared for the fact that 100 meters you will have to go in a semi-bent position.

Other pyramids, such as wives and mothers Hefren, can be inspecting for free by presenting an entrance ticket to the zone.

The agencies usually make integrated tours that cover several attractions immediately, so if you want to get acquainted more in a detailed place, it is better to come here yourself or look for guides offering extended excursions to the pyramids. If desired, travelers can combine the inspection of the pyramid with the visit of other famous attractions located nearby. For example, it is possible to get to the pyramids of Hefren and Micheer and the famous large sphinx on the plateau.

The best time for their inspection is morning, immediately after opening. It is strictly forbidden to climb the pyramids, chop out a piece of memory and write "here was ...". Penalty for this you can pay such that it will exceed the cost of your trip.

If you want to capture yourself to the background of the pyramid or just surroundings, prepare 1 euro for the right of shooting, inside the pyramids is prohibited. If you are offered to take a picture, do not agree and do not give the camera to anyone in your hands, otherwise you will have to redeem it back.

The cost of entry into the territory of the Pyramids is 200 LE, visiting the peyramid of Heops - 400 LE.

Tickets for visiting the pyramids are limited: 150 pieces are sold at 8 am and as much as at 13 o'clock. Two ticket office work: one at the main entrance, the second is at the Sphinx.

Each of the pyramids is closed for restoration work once a year, so all you are unlikely to see.

It is not recommended to visit the pyramids to people with heart problems, light, and also suffering from asthma: the air there is dusty, inside is very hot and dry.

If there is no desire to walk around the Giza zone, you can rent a camel. Its cost will depend on your ability to bargain. But keep in mind that all prices will not be played at once, and when you roll, it turns out that you have to pay and for getting off the camel.

Hope's Pyramid is located about 19 km from Cairo, there are several options to get to it from this city. You can purchase an excursion tour in the agency or in your hotel, a transfer, guide services included. If you do not want to depend on the schedule offered by the Agency, you can get here on your own. You can rent a car and get home to the place, a taxi service is also popular, it can be hired both at the airport and at any other point of the city.

Delicate advice: the toilet is located in the Sunny Boat Museum.

On the territory of the area of ​​the pyramids are cafeteria, where you can have a good dinner.

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Daily in the evenings there is a light-sound show with a duration of one hour. It passes in different languages: Arabic, English, Japanese, Spanish, French. On Sundays, the show is held in Russian. It is recommended to divide visiting the pyramids and visiting the show for two days, otherwise you will not be able to accommodate so many impressions.

When we are talking about the power of any state, then comparing it primarily with ancient Rome. It is understandable. After all, Byzantium, the eastern part of the Great Empire, disappeared from the world map only in the XV century. Yesterday, according to historical standards. The legislation, culture and traditions of a huge state became the basis of modern European civilization. With an ancient Egypt, everything is much more complicated. His story looks like a puff pastry and began in many centuries before the start of our era. But it was there that the last of the seven wonders of the world was preserved, the famous Pyramid of Heops. Where is (location, geographic coordinates), history, interesting facts - you read everything in the article.

Also, autonomous tourists can also reach attractions by public transport, the Mashaal number M7 will take it to the nearest to it, you can sit on it, for example, at the ABDEL MUNIM Riad Square stop near the Egyptian Museum.

The same people in thousands of years

Where is the pyramid of Heops? In which country? This is known to everyone. The area of ​​modern Egypt is more than 1 million square meters. km. It occupies the northeastern part of Africa and part of Asia, the Sinai Peninsula. For all the time of its existence, he experienced about forty invasions, was under the dominion of the Greeks, Romans, was part of Byzantium. The nitrian desert has become a refuge for many Christian saints. There was an anthony Great, Macarius Egyptian and many others. Even after the conquest of Arabs, the country was still a Christian. Despite all this, most of the modern Egyptians are ethnic descendants of those whose most competed in power with Babylonians. The fact is that they did not participate in such a phenomenon as the resettlement of peoples. By the way, the word "Copt", and this is 7-8% of the population, in translation means simply "Egyptians". So Egypt is largely a unique country.

On the subway it will be possible to reach only with a transfer, you need to go to the station "Giza" and transfer to the bus number M7.

Country in the desert

Located this country, in fact, in the desert. They occupy 96% of its territory. And only the remaining part is the fertile lands of the valley and the Delta of the Nile, the longest river of the world. From the source to the mouth - 6671 kilometers. Nile is formed in Sudan, near the city of Khartoum. The modern capital of Egypt, Cairo dishes the river into two parts. But there were several capitals in the population of the country's many thousands of history.

From other resorts of Egypt, such as Hurghada and Sharm el-Sheikh can be reached by sightseeing tour. If you are an independent tourist, then you need to get to Cairo in any convenient way - by plane, bus or rented car. The distance from Hurghada to Pyramid is about 480 km, from Sharm el-Sheikh is about 530 km away.

First capital

The origins of a unique civilization are lost in the neolithic era. This is the VI millennium BC. The fact that then happened in the north-east of Africa, you can only guess. Historians share the history of Egypt on the epochs that are called dynastic. The formation of the first, early kingdom refers to 3100 to our era. It should be borne in mind that all dates in such a long history of the Power are approximate. After all, then there was no fixed point from which the calendar began. In Egypt, the account was conducted from the coronation of the next pharaoh, although they divided the year for 12 months, each of which was 30 days. It was in the era of the early kingdom of Pharaohs received no limited power. One of them, Memphis settled in Memphis. So this city became the first capital of the United Egypt. This is the north of the country, 30 kilometers of South Cairo.

"Houses of Eternity"

Where the Pyramid of Heops, in Egypt, the cult of afterlife is very developed. This was the reason that we do not know anything about residential buildings, even about Palaces of Pharaoh. Temporary man of man was built from an unreleased brick dried in the sun. It is clear that such buildings are not preserved. But the temples and tombs, "houses of eternity", were erected from stone. But this later, already in the era of the ancient kingdom, the period of the reign of 3-6 dynasty. It is possible that the origin of the burial of the rulers was simply mounds. And later, fearing the robbers, the ties began to cut down in the rocks, carefully masking. So almost all known pyramids were built in 2686-2181 BC. These are not necessarily stone bullfin. There are very small tombstones. In addition, not all of them are found. Only in early 2000, archaeologists from France found not far from Cairo a strongly destroyed pyramid. There were buried the mother of the last Pharaoh of the era of the first elevation of Egypt, Pep II.

Who built the pyramids?

But when the most magnificent funeral structures were built, before the weakening of Egypt was still far away. It must be said about what is known about the state time of the country of that time. Recently it was believed that there was a great importance to the work of slaves, which was a huge set in Egypt. This is an obvious exaggeration. The main population of the state was the royal hemu. They were, of course, undermine people who were fully disposed of pharaohs, temples or nobles. But to call them slaves will be incorrect. Rather serfs. They could not change the profession, to own worms of labor, but were nevertheless citizens. Slaves in the classical understanding of such a word were a bit, they were mainly prisoners and were called "Baku". This is important because long historians were confidential that the construction of huge pyramids was possible only with the use of slave labor. But it was a mistake.

Heops - son Skf

The pharaohs of the first two dynasties acquired eternal peace in quadrangular buildings from an unreleased brick. They had a flat roof, and inside they were divided into several rooms. "Mastaba", so they were called. The first of the preserved huge buildings elevated for himself by Pharaoh Joser. He ruled in the XXVII century to our era. It is also known the name of the one who embodied the idea of ​​his lord. His name was imhehotep. He did simply, putting one on the other six decreasing up the MastaB. The result was a stepped pyramid that resembles the Babylonian zigarat. The pyramids for the two next pharaohs were for some reason only started. Next of the finished, located in Maidum, also conceived a stepped. Pharaoh Huni died, without waiting for the end of construction. It was completed by the Snowframe, which was ordered to give the pyramid the correct form. But it was still primitive, just falling asleep empty space between sand and rubble steps. Nevertheless, it was the Snowframe - the greatest builder of the pyramid. With it, the tomb for Huni was completed, and two more were built, in Dakhshire. But his son, Heops entered the story.

Fifty-story tomb

It was the second pharaoh of the 4th dynasty of the ancient kingdom, who lived in 2589-2566 to our era. The place for your own burial, as well as all the rulers, began to prepare as soon as she climbed the throne. The square base of its pyramid is more than 52,900 square meters, each side is 230 meters. The height after the completion of construction was 147 meters. During the earthquake, the upper stones sat down. The construction that we see is now 9 meters below. White limestone, which it was lined, was not preserved. But you can imagine how majestically looked a pyramid when the rays of the sun were reflected from the shiny surface. Pyramid and now amazing imagination. It is clear why the opinion was established about hundreds of thousands of slaves, which were built. Here played his role and Herodotus, who believed Egypt's priests to the Greek era. One hundred thousand workers for 20 years. So he recorded, referring to them. But such a number of people at the same time simultaneously would not fit on the construction site. Now, thanks to experiments, they found out that there were also 20 thousand people. Builders brigades from time to time replaced. And they were not slaves at all, but the very "royal hemuu", a kind of fortress peasants.

Voluntarily

These people did not necessarily have been promoted for a construction site. Despite the fact that in the Nile Valley, it was possible to collect up to three yields per year, from around June to November, the farmers remained without work. Therefore, when a wrist wrist appeared in the village, which made lists of those who wish to work on Pharaoh, the latter, most likely there was a lot. After all, there they received a salary, housing, clothing and food. There was another one, perhaps a more important reason. Everyone hoped that he would find at least a particle of the immortality of a god-like rulers. And these people burned out near Memphis for 340 stone blocks per day. Others delivered them with a simple, but for their time advanced technology in place, and there they were waiting for those who laid blocks to the specified place. In just 23 years, 2,300,000 pieces were laid.

City of dead

Where is the pyramid of Heops, in which city?

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Giza is on the outskirts of Cairo. Hope's pyramid is not alone standing on the plateau. The second largest belongs to his son, Hefren. It is lower, 136 meters. And finally, the third - Pharaoh Mikherina, only 66 meters high. From a height, if you look at the West, another group of pyramids is visible. This is another necropolis Giza, Abusir. But the pyramids located there are not as magnificent, and much lower. The highest, Pharaoh Neferirirharar, 72 meters in height. In general, the city where the Pyramid of Heops is located is the real city of the dead. 17 kilometers south is the Sakcar necropolis. It is almost opposite the place where Memphis was. And another 10 kilometers south - Dakhshur. The power of the ancient kingdom was undermined by internal parties in the country. But now all over the world know where the pyramid of Heops (geographic coordinates 29.9792747 of northern latitude and 31.1342163 Eastern longitude). And an ancient Egypt has a big future ahead.

The Egyptian pyramid of Heops is one of the seven wonders of the world, the only preserved to the present day, it rises at the Giza Plateau not far from Cairo. It is the highest of the pyramid complex located on the plateau. The structure affects its scale, it is difficult to imagine how people approximately 4500 years ago, having only primitive instruments at their disposal, were able to build such a masterpiece.

The pyramids in ancient Egypt were the burial site of Pharaohs, who after death had to get to the otherworldly peace and to gain immortality. It was believed that the deceased Pharaoh helped his people, ensuring the further existence of Egyptian civilization. Hope's pyramid is the most ambitious building of this type, which perpetuated the name of Pharaoh and became a symbol of outstanding skill and perseverance of the builders of the time. In addition, it envelops the many mysteries and secrets, which attracts tourists from different countries.

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Hope's pyramid on Google Egypt Panorama:

Construction of the pyramid of Heops

Pharaoh Heops (Khufu) entered the story precisely as a ruler who built a grand pyramid, he was obsessed with the idea of ​​eternal life and sought to build a structure that would exceed his predecessors. Among the Egyptologists there is no consensus on the start of construction, according to one of the versions, this happened in 2560 BC. e.

The construction process lasted for about 20 years, it was fundamentally important to the ruler so that the construction was completed before his death. In those days, people believed that Pharaoh was not just a king, and the demigod, whose soul, leaving the pyramid, hits heaven, where he gains eternal life and is the guarantor of the further development of the Egyptian civilization and the well-being of the people. Thus, the pyramid was part of the ritual of the resurrection of the ruler.

Pyramid construction technologies

The construction site turned on the top of the limestone plateau, a few hundred meters from it were cast careers in which the stone was cut down and removed as ready blocks. It was a rather complicated and exhaust work, especially if you consider that people used the most primitive tools for this. No less severe affair was the delivery of blocks, each of which weighed about 2.5 tons. For this, salazzas were used, which pulled to the place of similarity made from limestone rubble and a gypsum solution. The surface is similar to the bodies, moistened with water.

Construction required a large number of workers, about 25 thousand people were involved in approximate estimates in the works. There was a hypothesis that slaves worked at the construction site, but it was refuted. Scientists believe that this work was the payment of the tax, which collected the ruler from his people, it turns out that free citizens from all Egyptian settlements took part in the construction. The effectiveness of the process was provided at the expense of a clear organization of labor, separation of workers on the brigades, coherence of work and additional motivation - the Competor Spirit. A group of control was also formed, which carefully followed the progress of work. In addition, people understood that they were involved in creating a sacred building, which would provide the future of the people.

Of course, work was heavy and dangerous - were not rare injury, but workers received good medical care. There were many cases of death of people. During the excavations held in the 1980s, under the sand layer, it was possible to detect the village in which workers lived. According to these finds, it was possible to draw up an idea of ​​the conditions in which they lived. Created by the Egyptians of the pyramid - not only a demonstration of high level of skill on the limits of human capabilities, but also of the exact technologies.

In the process of designing and creating a structure, astronomical knowledge, mathematical calculations and knowledge in the geometry region were used. In the eastern and western walls of the inner chambers of the pyramid there are 2 small mines, for a long time, Egyptologists believed that they are intended for ventilation. However, in the 1960s, an unexpected discovery was made, one of them was directed to Orion's belt, the other - on the polar star, in those places on which they appeared in the night sky of ancient Egypt. Through these mines, the soul of Pharaoh had to be ascended to these stars, and Heops should have become God and gain immortality.

The hardest stage in construction was the installation of the upper blocks, some scientists believe that they used spiral gatherings. For laying the last blocks, levers could be applied, this work was extremely dangerous. Heops's pyramid had a facing that fascinating her appearance, especially when the monument was covered with the rays of the sun.

Construction of the burial chamber

An important stage was the placement of the funeral chamber, in which the sarcophagus should be located with the body of the deceased Pharaoh. In order to protect him from the Camera Crowders were placed under the pyramid. For this, the workers began to do the tunnel, but the work soon ceased - Heops changed his mind and ordered to make the funeral chamber in the center of the pyramid itself. What caused Pharaoh to change its solution? On this score, there is a theory, it was announced in the 1920s after the clustered burial chamber found during the archaeological expedition found during the archaeological expedition, in which there was alabaster sarcophagus.

It was the tomb of Mother Pharaoh Heops, it was under one of the pyramids of the companion, not far from the pyramid of Heops. Sarcophag himself was empty, no trace of hacking was found. Then scientists put forward the theory, according to which the mother of Huf died during the reign of her son, they were buried elsewhere, but that the tomb was looted. Then it was decided to reburo an empty sarcophagus. As if it was very scared by Pharaoh, who did not want the same outcome, so he changed the decision on the location of his burial chamber. However, many other Egyptologists dispute this theory.

Interior of the madman

The eastern face of the pyramid of Heops is 3 small pyramids of his wives and family members. They are located from north to south, according to the size: the base of the base of each construction is 0.5 meters less than the previous one. They are well preserved inside, the time partially destroyed only the external cladding. Nearby you can see the foundation of the clock temple of the huof, inside which the drawings depicting the ritual executed by Pharaoh were found, he wore name to combine both lands.

Be that as it may, the camera decided to post in the center of the pyramid, for its preservation, invented the most modern security system at that time. The sarcophagus with the body of the ruler should be delivered to the pyramid on a special gallery, which was then sealed. In addition, Pharaoh ordered to use for the construction of the funeral chamber and internal passages are not limestone, but ultra-durable granite. Through it will be difficult to break through the tunnel.

A new order complicated the life of a worker, to process granite, a tool was needed, which was made of routine - stone more durable than granite. There was also a lot of effort and patience. The weight of the burial roof was 400 tons to avoid destruction, builders built a series of unloading cameras that allowed to redistribute the load.

Hope's pyramid and other Egypt's pyramids, video:

Hoeop's pyramid today

The sizes of the pyramid affect the imagination of travelers, its area exceeds the size of 6 soccer fields.

Initially, the height pyramid height was approximately 146 meters, today this value is about 138 meters, the initial area of ​​its base is 5.3 hectares, the angle of inclination is 51 ° 50 ', its feature is concave of the parties.

Four faces of the pyramid are located at right angles. In addition to the Pharaoh's Pyramid itself, there are 3-satellite pyramids designed for the burial of the king, the graves of the court favorites are also located nearby. Many tourists seek to visit the complex to see the largest pyramid and the historical buildings around it. Tourists also offer a fee to ride camels for a fee, but be prepared to face enterprise local residents - they may require pay to the camel descent, which is sometimes much more expensive than the trip itself.

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