Monument K. Marx in Smolny.
Monument K. Marx in Smolny (Gypsum, 1918, sculptor A. T. Matveyev); not survived.
Monumental sculpture (equestrian monuments, columns, obeliski, multifigure compositions, statues, portrait busts), plays a big role in the Leningrad ensemble and is distinguished by a variety of art decisions and execution skill. One of the best monuments of the XVIII century. - The world famous "copper rider" (Monument to Peter I; Opened in 1782, the sculptors of E. M. Falcone, M. Kollo, Architect Yu. M. Felten), which is an integral part of the city center ensemble. According to the model B. K. Rastrelli, the equestrian statue of Peter I, installed in 1800 in front of the engineering lock; On the pedestal, lined with Olonetsk marble, Bar-reliefs "Poltava Batalia" and "Battle at Ganguhe" (Sculptors M. I. Kozlovsky, I. I. Terebenev, V. I. Deut-Malinovsky, I. Moiseev). The monument of A. V. Suvorov, depicted in the form of the ancient Roman god of the Marsa war, was created in 1800-01 according to the Kozlovsky model (the bas-relief on the granite pedestal - the sculptor F. G. Gordeyev) and was originally installed on the Marsfield (in 1818 he was transferred to the arranger from shores of the Neva). In honor of the victories overwhelmed by the Russian Army under the command of P. A. Rumyantsev in war with Turkey (1768-74), Rumyantsev Obelisk (1798-99, Architect V. F. Brenna) was created. In memory of Russia's victories in the Patriotic War of 1812, Narva triumphal gates and Aleksandrovsk column were erected, in memory of the victory in the Russian-Turkish war, 1828-29 - Moscow Triumphal Gates. The ensemble of the Kazan Cathedral according to the plan of architect V. P. Stasov was completed by the monumental monument of M. I. Kutuzov and M. B. Barclay de Tolly (1829-37, sculptor B. I. Orlovsky). Other, parade and representative character are monuments to Nicholas I on Isaac Square (1856-59, Architect A. A. Montferran, Sculptor P. K. Klodt, Allegorical figures on a pedestal and bas-reliefs - Sculptors R. K. Zalendan, N. A. Ramazanov) and Catherine II on Alexandrinskaya Square (now Ostrovsky Square; 1862-73, artist M. O. Mikeshin, Sculptors M. A. Chizhov, A. M. Pekpeshin, Architect D. I. Grimm). Many Russian writers, science figures, composers are emerged by bronze monuments, composers: Monument I. A. Krylov in the summer garden, A. S. Pushkin in the square in Pushkinskaya Street (1883-84, Sculptor Pucker), I. F. Kruzenshtern, "First Russian Swimmer around the world, "on the embankment of Lieutenant Schmidt (1870-73, sculptor I. N. Schroeder, Architect I. A. Monigretti), M. V. Lomonosov on Lomonosov Square (1892, Sculptor P. P. Pokallo, Architect A. S. Lykin), M. I. Glinka near the Conservatory building (1903-06, Sculptor R. R. Bach, Architect A. R. Bach) and others. The heroic feat of the crew of the destroyer "Unregular" during the Russian-Japanese war 1904 05 is dedicated to the monument located in the park named after V. I. Lenin (see "Energling" monument). The modern era made a new content in the monumental sculpture of Leningrad. The best monuments of Soviet times, developing the traditions of the past, enrich the appearance of historical and newly created ensembles of the city. According to the monumental propaganda plan, a monument to "fighters of the revolution" was built at the Marsfield, in 1918-20 - a number of temporary monuments with outstanding figures of revolution, science, literature and art. Bright embodiment found in the monumental sculpture of Leningrad, the image of V. I. Lenin. In the 20-30s. A number of other monuments are installed - V. Volodar on the left bank of the Neva (1925, the sculptor M. G. Manizer, Architect V. A. Vitman), stele in memory of the parking lot of the Aurora embankment on the Red Fleet embankment (1939, Architect A. and . Hegello); In 1938, a monument to S. M. Kirov (sculptor N. V. Tomsky, Architect N. A. Trotsky, opened in the Kirov Square. During the Great Patriotic War and Blockada, the best monuments were protected from enemy bombs and shells, lowered underground shelters. After the war, a number of monuments were created by its heroes, including Busts twice the heroes of the Soviet Union - Narins of Leningrad on the heroes Alley in the Moscow Park of Victory. Among the works of the monumental sculpture of the 50s - early 80s. Monuments of N. G. Chernyshevsky on Moscow Prospekt (1947, sculptor V. V. Leshev, Architect V. I. Yakovlev), N. A. Roman-Korsakov at the Conservatory building (1952, Sculptors V. Ya. Bogolyubov, V. I. Ingal, Architect M. A. Sheplevsky), A. S. Pushkin on the Art Square (1957, Sculptor M. K. Alinishin, Architect V. A. Petrov), A. S. Griboedov (1959, Sculptor Leshev, Architect V. I. Yakovlev), N. A. Dobrolyubov (1959, Sculptor V. A. Sinai, Architect S. B. Speransky), M. Gorky (1968, Sculptors V. V. Isaev, M. R. Gabab, Architect E. A. Levinson), J. Kaprengy (1967, Sculptor L. K. Lazarev, Architect M. N. Meisel). In 1975, the monument was opened by heroic defenders of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War. Decorated with monumental obsells, pylons, sculpture of entry into Leningrad from the Petrodvorez, Kolpino, Poklonnaya Mountain, Sestroretsk.
Literature: Arkin D., Monumental sculpture of Leningrad, M., 1948; Kruglov M. G., Monuments in the architecture of cities, M., 1952; Petrova E. N., Monumental and decorative sculpture of Leningrad, L., 1961.
Monument "Krasnogvardets" on Vasilyevsky Island.
Monument "Krasnogvardets" on Vasilyevsky Island (Gypsum, 1918, sculptor V. L. Simonov); not survived.
Monument to S. L. Pepovskaya at the Moscow railway station.
Monument to S. L. Pepovskaya at the Moscow railway station (Gypsum, 1918, Sculptor O. Griselli); not survived.
Monument to the heroic defenders of Leningrad.
Monument to the heroic defenders of Leningrad.
Sculpture in modern environment
In contrast to urban and easel sculptures, monumental plastic has always been the result of perpetuating historical events, conservation in the memory of people important for the state of personalities and determining the necessary values for society.
Therefore, the monumental sculpture has always been created, and today it needs, as well as in the past.
Only the attitude to the sculpture itself changes. If, for many centuries, classic plastic has been a standard vision of any of the monuments, then some free, creatively accented vision of the monumental object appeared in the 21st century. At the same time, the traditional, realistic approach to the creation of these sculptures remained in many countries of the world.
The perpetuation of historical monuments for any state has always been a very important action, and the installation of a magnificent monument was preserved in the memory of people of those important events for the country, which as echo history should always remind society about their meaning.
Most historical monuments in the modern era stand on the streets of cities, and their magnificence adorn the urban environment. It always glances the view of tourists, visitors or citizens themselves. Especially if the monumental monument is impeccable in its performance and perfectly fits into the architectural environment. When, for example, the ancient architecture is ideally considered with an old sculpture, high quality modeling and casting.
In such urban spaces, you can often find a large number of people, vacationers or making photos against the background of monumental sculptures. And such sculptures are always revered by citizens for their exceptional similarity with historical figures, which are depicted in these monuments.
Naturally, the modern era always wants something new, something more relevant and cognitive in sculpture. But, despite this, the historical, high mastery experience of a monumental sculpture remains relevant so far. And many monumental monuments of the 21st century are created, as well as in past centuries, based on classical form.
But I want to repeat again about the fact that such classic sculptures are ideal only in general with the architecture of urban joint layout.
When modern architecture is considered, with its new designer features, then the classic monument standing next to, will not match the harmonious style.
Here, new modern trends are traced. Where the architecture itself requires appropriate support, from the artistic work, which its unique modern form will not only surprise the viewer, but also complement the beauty of the architectural space.
In such situations, the modern sculpture of large formats is very similar to the sculptures of small forms. This is due to the tasks of the 21st century, when artworks should not be laid from constantly changing social changes. The growth of industry, design and computer technologies, pushing artists to similar innovations. Therefore, the sculpture of small and large forms is very often similar. Different only tasks. Small forms are determined by the interior medium, and monumental large volumes, harmonious interaction with architectural plastic and its composition.
The desire to find new ideas leads artists and to new inventions. In the same way as in the architecture of the 21st century, the monumental sculpture acquires new plastic volumes that destroy familiar stereotypes. Starting from the moment Henry Moore opened a new vision of monumental art by creating his own style. Many sculptors stopped looking at the familiar sculptures of Rogen, Maolet and MN. Dr. who was popular in the 20th century. Unusual attitude to the most expression of the form made many reconsider their creativity. The classical story, which was the norm and perfection, already at the beginning of the 21st century began to gradually lose their relevance.
The monumental sculpture was completely not studied in this area. The search for your own style together with the search for a variety of non-standard forms was led by an artist and sculptor into a new, unknown world, where opportunities throughout the 21st century still seem endless.
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The attitude towards the monumental sculpture that has changed in different formats and at the same time preserved the wealth of historical classics, suggests that it was not so much mastered in the entire history of the sculptural monumental. Perhaps in the future, this category of art will open great opportunities for artists.
Monumental sculpture is quite different from other similar types of art. This is due to the fact that it embodies not only the idea of the author, but also a great historical moment or even a full period. As a rule, such monuments are installed directly where various actions occurred, which, in fact, they are dedicated.
While watching monumental sculptures, the viewer needs to be bypass. The fact is that, unlike paintings, statues and monuments look more realistic. Accordingly, it is necessary to get acquainted with this art from all overview points.
In modern times there are several definitions of monumental sculpture. First, it is a monument, stele, obelisk or something else, which was built with one goal - to honor the memory of a separate person who made a lot of good for the city or country.
Secondly, this is a sculpture dedicated to historical events. It is usually installed at the end of the wars. There are cases when monuments are erected in the anniversary years of a city.
In everyday life, the monumental sculpture is any sculpture that has large dimensions. But this definition cannot be called scientific, although it takes place.
In fact, the monumental sculpture is a work of art that is dedicated to historical events. She can also erect in honor of great personalities. Its characteristic features are largely sized and harmony with the architecture of the environment.
As a target audience, a mass spectator is considered. It cannot be said that only the sculptures with one figure can be monuments, there may be more. Sometimes there are full-fledged combat moments with the participation of several personalities, guns and so on.
The history of monumental sculpture
In Russia, as well as around the world, the art of sculpture has been improved over long centuries. First, a tree was used as a material, then a stone. At the beginning of the first century, the first work of a monumental nature appears in Kiev. This relief is God of Godmaty.
However, it should not be assumed that the monumental-decorative sculpture actually originates in Kiev. The fact is that the Slavic masters were trained at the Byzantine talented sculptors. And in Byzantium, the type was considered pretty more popular.
The first types of monumental sculptures were devoted at all of not human history. They personified wars between the gods, patrons of cities or childbirth and so on. And only a few centuries later there is a revolution in the world of this art. The first monuments appear, with the help of which they planned to perpetuate individual people who really existed and creating useful cases on the planet.
Technology of production of monumental sculpture
Before the monumental sculpture will be installed in the place allotted for it, there will be a lot to work. There are several manufacturing techniques, but each of them has common features. The process takes place in the 7 stages:
- Creating a sketch on paper.
- Creating a graphic sketch on which future sculpture from different sides of the review will be depicted.
- Creating a small model of a statue of soft material. As a rule, plasticine is used for this. In the past, there was no possibility to try to make a small copy, so all sculptures were made by "hugging".
- Creating a working model in which the author counts all proportions, up to small parts.
- Proportions in a single coordinate system. Often again sketches are performed, but already taking into account the work done.
- Getting started with material. By centimeter, the sculptor builds his future creation.
- Finishing movements are made, small details are corrected, such as hairs, eyes, lip corners, and so on.
Thus, years or even decades can be taken to create one small statue. After all, you need to think through many details to create a masterpiece.
Material of production
Monumental sculpture can be made of various materials. True genius is able to use everything that is at hand. But most often the following raw materials are applied:
- Natural stone - marble or granite. The first allows you to make softer lines and features, but it is weakly resisting moisture. Therefore, granite is more often used to place statues on the street. Products are dispensed with large blocks.
- Artificial stone - composite. This material is poured into the form. After the sculpture is driving, it becomes completely ready. According to the type, the products differ little from marble or granite, but it is much cheaper.
- Metal - bronze, brass or copper. The production method is similar to the previous option. The hot metal is poured into the form, then give it time to dry.
- Gypsum . This material is the easiest for sculptors. First, the powder is stirred together with water, then the resulting mixture is poured into the form. The drying process passes quickly, literally for half an hour.
- Wood . In this case, sculptures can be cut from a monolithic piece, or to be created in separate parts.
The choice of material is focused only on the desire of the sculptor, only occasionally it is selected in accordance with the requirements of the customer of the product.
Types of monumental sculptures
Monumental sculpture is infinite in his diversity. You can give a variety of examples that will be associated with this art. However, there are species for which the classification of monumental models occurs:
- Memorial. This sculpture, with which the creator is trying to perpetuate anyone.
- Monument. This is a monument that is dedicated to historical events or leaders.
- A statue - Monument dedicated to a separate personality.
- Stele - Vertical stove, on which the inscription or engraved drawing is carved.
- Obelisk - a pillar consisting of 4 faces that are sharpened up.
- Monumental-decorative sculpture. It performs two functions at once. First, perpetuates an event or personality. And secondly, it is performed so as to approach the environment, to harmonize with it, that is, for the decor.
- Triumphal columns, arches or gates. These are such structures that are performed in honor of the victory over anything, getting rid of the oppression and so on.
It is possible that in modern times the talented sculptors will appear, which will make additional species in the general classification. Therefore, it is possible to consider the list finished only at the moment, it is impossible to deny its potential replenishment.
In each country, the monumental sculpture is rather common. Examples can be brought infinitely long. This is due to the fact that any state has its own history, its important moments, their great people. And to convey knowledge to future generations, monuments and obeliski, statues and monuments, steles and memorials are erected.
As Russian examples, a monument to Peter 1, located in St. Petersburg, can be considered. The great sculptor Falcone worked over him for almost 15 years.
Also need to pay attentionAlexandria column.
It is devoted to victory over Napoleon, but Alexander I refused to be erected. However, the descendants of the emperor found the right thing to continue to perpetuate this important historical moment for Russia.
From foreign monumental sculptures, you can consider the statue of Mark Aureliya, located in Rome. Its safe until today should be considered great luck. When all the statues of Mark remembered, this monument was considered the sculpture of a completely different person. Therefore, today you can see it, after the restoration, it looks like a new one.
In order to fulfill the monument to Peter 1, Falcone was invited to Russia by order of Empress Catherine II. The sculptor at that time was already quite old (50 years old) for large-scale work, there was no one in France for him. He himself, performing orders at the usual factory, still dreamed of a major project. And when the invitation came, he did not even think. He came to Russia immediately as soon as he could.
Falcone was engaged in work for 12 years. But fulfilling the sculpture completely independently he could not or simply wanted. The monument's head took up his student who came with him. And the snake under the legs of the horse made a Russian sculptor.
Since the project was pretty big, the masters did not agree to cast. And there was no financial opportunity to contact foreigners. But then they turned to Hylov, who agreed to teach Falcone, help him with the selection of samples and proportions.
It should be noted that the sculptor received a relatively small fee, but with the help of the copper rider he managed to perpetuate not only the Russian emperor, but also himself. Today, anyone can familiarize himself with sculpture, it is in open access in St. Petersburg.
Statue of Mark Aureliya
There are such sculptures that have already many centuries. On some of them are known only by writing or ruins. But one after all is preserved to the present day. This is a statue of Mark Aurelius in Rome.
In general, there were many similar statues in the country. However, in the Middle Ages, they were all interpretable in various useful bronze products. Equestrian image Mark Auraliya has been saved only due to the error. The fact is that it was confused with the sculption of Emperor Konstantin Great.
In the era of the revival, the monument served as an indicative model. Many sculptors, including talented and even ingenious Donatello, appealed to him, focused on it.
The Alexandrovsk Column appeared in the project immediately after the victory over Napoleon. However, the emperor did not support the idea, because he was modest, and the letter of thanks in honor of Alexander I did not suit him. Work on Obelisk ceased.
Later, when Karl Rossi engaged in the design of the Main Staff, he adjusted the architecture under the Alexander Column. Therefore, in 1829, Nicholas I had nothing left, except to accept the project. Unfortunately, his development he entrusted not Russia, and Monferran.
The Alexandrovsk Column was made of red granite. Her vertex is decorated angel. It is the highest triumphal column in the world. Also, its distinctive feature is that there is no foundation or pile fortification under it. It holds only thanks to the exact calculation.
The building of the Admiralty in St. Petersburg was performed according to the drawings of Peter I. His construction began in 1704. After 7 years in the center of the facade of the structure, the tower was performed, the spire of which was decorated with a small boat.
The Admiralty building in St. Petersburg is one of the main buildings of the city. This is due to the fact that three large streets are intersecting with him. The main facade in length is 407 meters. Nearby there is a sculptural decoration that includes several statues and columns.
One way or another, a monumental sculpture occupies an important place in art. Photo of various triumphant sculptures, statues or monuments decorate the pages of many historical books. Some sculptures are stored in private collections, but even their time from time to time is shown at exhibitions. However, for the most part, all the monuments are located on the streets of cities, and everyone can familiarize themselves with them free of charge.
Monumental sculpture - This is a type of visual art designed to decorate a certain natural or architectural and spatial landscape.
Monumental sculpture can be a monument, monument, a memorial building, a statue, a bust, a fairly large relief. Such works are usually created for installation in a particular place to supplement the architectural appearance of the building, square, square, streets, etc. The monumental sculpture is a single integer with the surrounding environment.
The main topics for creating monumental sculptures are significant historical events, outstanding politicians, culture, art, sports and other industries. The monumental sculpture includes the majority of monuments to famous people ("Copper Horseman" in St. Petersburg, Monument to Catherine II in Ekaterininsky Square in St. Petersburg, a monument to Pushkin in Pushkin Square in Moscow, a monument to Y. Dolgorukhu on Tverskaya Square, "Mother's Mother call ! "In Volgograd and many others).
Monumental sculpture what. Monumental sculpture
Monumental sculpture is a type of visual art, the works of which are devoted to significant historical events or are erected in honor of great people. The characteristic features of monumental sculpture are large scale, unity of content, harmony with an architectural and spatial environment. The target audience is a massive viewer. Monumental sculpture, which can be both single-digit and multifigure, is performed in the form of memorial complexes, monuments and reliefs.
This type of visual art is not the most ancient, but the works of monumental sculpture is the most common form. The earliest of the preserved. And so far one of the largest sculptural images are created in ancient Egypt. A bright example is the Memphis Sphynx, which is included in the complex of the pyramids in Giza. The monumental sculpture is directly related to the architectural medium, it is distinguished by significant ideological content, a generalization of forms, a large scale.
|The works of sculptures do not become monumental on the size nor of the appointment, nor depending on their material, although the other, and the third can be part of the sculptural beauty and significantly influence its character. It is clear that monumentality is exactly the quality of the artistic form for which the less suitable for purely quantitative effects is suitable. - A. I. Bolshahtes.|
Monumental sculpture drawing. How to draw sculpture
The sculptures are mostly represented by images of people or events that should be allegedly remember for a long time. Why it is necessary to remember them known only to the participants of this event. They want them to regret them and not forget. But the life of the thing is valid, and all, even the most terrible, events are forgotten the next day, or in a week, or in a year, if a person is very impressionable. Personally, I really like sculptures that complement the appearance of the city, make it more comfortable and more attractive. And the sculptures mounted in memory of anything, I consider mockery of a sense of excellent. Especially infuriates if the sculptures put on the whims of officials in order to simply put and write off the money from the budget. The work made on the annoyance rarely turns out to be worthy of the artist of the connoisseur. I hope I brought my fair thought to my reader. To confirm your words I give a lesson drawing the sculpture of the mother's motherland in Volgograd. This is a good job:
How to draw a sculpture pencil stages
Step one. You need one sheet of paper A4. Establish it vertically as depicting portraits. Take a simple solid pencil 2n. In the center of the sheet, make a circle for the head and sketch the outline of the dress. Step second. Draw a pose in which the sculpture of the motherland is standing. The chest has it. Apparently, the sculptor loved his homeland very much. Step Three. Add folds on clothes.
Types of sculpture
Sculpture - type of visual art; The works of the sculpture (mostly complete or partial images of a human figure) have a volumetric form and are performed from solid or plastic materials. As a term "sculpture" is used as synonyms for the terms "sculpture" and "plastic". In a narrow sense, the sculpture and sculpture understand the carving, cutting from a stone, cutting out of a tree; Under plastic - molding from clay, wax and other viscous materials.
Sculpture is divided into two main types: round and relief.
A round sculpture intended for Furnishing from all sides is divided into the following subspecies: a statue (figure in growth), a group (two or more figures associated with the content and composition), a figurine (figure is significantly less than nature), bust (human sulfa) . The relief in its visual capabilities occupies an intermediate place between the round sculpture and the image on the plane. Like a round sculpture, the relief has three dimensions, but the composition is deployed along the plane in one or several spatial layers. The relief can be protruding on the background plane (main types: low relief, or bas-relief, and high-relief) and in-depth (coolant). According to the appointment, the sculpture is divided into monumental, monumental-decorative and machine. The monumental sculpture is intended to approve socially significant ideas to appeal to the wide masses of the audience. Executed in large sizes and from durable materials, the monumental sculpture is installed in public places outdoors (on squares, in parks) or in large rooms. The monumental-decorative sculpture includes all types of sculptural decoration associated with architecture: Caryatids, Atlanta, Maskarona, Design of Frontton, Frosses, Metop, etc. On the facades of buildings; Statues and groups on buildings or in front of them, stucco plaffones, panels, etc. In the interiors of buildings. One species of monumental-decorative sculpture is a garden-park sculpture. The monumental-decorative sculpture is designed to enrich and develop an architectural image, strengthening the expressiveness of architectural forms. A significant place in the field of monumental-decorative sculpture belongs to the relief. A glass sculpture is a sculptural work that is not associated with architecture. A glass sculpture usually not exceeding the value of the nature is the most diverse in content and subject; It is intended for social and residential premises. It also includes the so-called sculpture of "small forms". The special area of sculpture is cast and chased medals, plaque and coins, as well as hemma, art carving, wood, bone; Jewelry sculptural products. New time, as a rule, is a monophonic, has a natural color of the material or smoothly painted (tinted plaster, patinated bronze). In the ancient world, the sculpture often was cleaned.